On the 7th and 8th of November 2013 in Beijing, China Center for Contemporary World Studies (CCCWS) and China Foundation for Peace and Development (CFPD) cosponsored "The Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue 2013", the theme of which was Global Trends and China in the Coming Decade. More than 120 scholars and experts from more than 30 countries and international organizations such as Croatia, Hungary, US, UK, Russia, Egypt, Italy, South Africa, Germany, Canada, Israel, Republic of Korea, Uzbekistan, Spain, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sweden, Netherlands, Singapore, Serbia, Japan, International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), International Crisis Group and China’s several research institutions like China Energy Fund Committee, China Development Research Foundation, National Development and Reform Commission, China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), China Institute of International Studies (CIIS), Tsinghua University, Peking University, Tongji University, and Jilin University participated in this conference.

The participants conducted discussions and made a deep analysis of the recent hot issues of global concern, with a focus on the following topics: Global Economy:Seeking Win-win Development; Global Politics: Bettering Intraand Inter-national Governances; Global Security: Tackling the Uncertainties and Conflicts; China’s International Strategies in a New Global Setting. In addition, the participating scholars and experts of the conference shared their insights regarding China’s foreign policy of peace and its future road of peaceful development, and voiced their expectations for China’s further contributions to future global prosperity.

This book is the collection of papers and speeches relating to the Multilateral Dialogue. Many of the papers were submitted in English while the rest were translated into English. The views expressed in the papers are the authors’ own and do not necessarily reflect CCCWS’ editorial policy. We are deeply indebted to the Central Compilation and Translation Press for helping to make this book a reality.

 

Make Good Use of Global Trends and Achieve Common Development-Keynote Speech at "The Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue 2013"

To Build the Consciousness of Human Destiny Community 12 dias , mendez familia en china and Promote the Sound Interactions between China and the World-Closing Remarks at "The Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue 2013〃

Speech at The Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue 2013 Speech at The Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue 2013 Regional Economic Integration: Way of Achieving Win-Win Development

Forecasting Global Trends and Promoting Human Development-Address at the welcoming banquet of the Contemporary World Multilateral Dialogue 2013 Session 1 Global Economy: Seeking Win-Win Development Global Economy: Seeking Win-Win Development

The European Union and Germany in the Global Economy and the Relationship with China The Role of Think Tanks in Canada for the Rise of Asia

Defending Energy Market from Monopolies and Cartels: The Antitrust Perspective

The Challenges to Peace and Security in Central Asia and the Perspectives of International

Cooperation in the Region



Pushed by China - Asia-Europe Expo, in recent years, the foreign trade development in Xinjiang has come to the best period. In 2012, the foreign trade volume of Xinjiang reached USD 25.17 billion, an increase of 10.3% over the previous year, 4.1 percentage points higher than the national average level; it actually utilized foreign investment of USD 408 million, an increase of 21.8%; and the turnover of foreign project contracting was USD 1.014 billion, an increase of 4.3%. Foreign trade, utilization of foreign investment and foreign economic and technological cooperation all created a best level in history. China - Asia-Europe Expo has become a golden name card of Xinjiang, and the role of Silk Road has been reestablished.

With this fair,  has been upgraded from accurate orientation to grouped industrial chain level, attracting many big enterprises and groups in China and overseas to Xinjiang. Development of emerging industries has promoted new industrialization and rapid growth of local economy. According to statistics, the amount of project contracts signed on this aspect on the Asia- Europe Expo was 59.785 billion yuan, accounting for 28.9% of the total amount of contracts signed, the contract amount for new type coal chemical projects and petroleum and chemical projects accounted for 51.55% of the total; and contract amount for modern service projects such as commercial trade and logistics, culture and tourism was 29.641 billion yuan, accounting for 14.33% of the total amount of contracts signed. The implementation of these projects will actively promote the economic restructuring and industrial upgrading in Xinjiang.

Over the years, with Urumchi Negotiation Fair held each year and its continuous upgrading, a large number of local enterprises in Xinjiang also kept on growing and marched to international market. Today, in the top 10 local enterprises in Xinjiang in terms of foreign direct investment, there are 4 with investment scale exceeding USD 100 million and 4 exceeding USD 60 million. In contracting overseas projects, backbone Chinesische Mauer Fakten overseas project contracting teams such as Beixin Group, West Drilling, TBEA, Xinjiang No. 3 Construction Company, Xinjiang Oilfield and Purpan Kumul Oilfield have been initially formed in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, some enterprises are actively trying running overseas projects with local employees, and the proportion of local employees in overseas projects has kept on increasing. By the end of 2011, local enterprises of Xinjiang had employed nearly 10,000 overseas employees, and their ability to cope with safety risks has obviously enhanced.



On November 27, 1954, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture was set up, which was a vice provincial-level regional ethnic autonomous division taking care of the three regions of Ili, Tacheng and Altay, with the Kazakh as the major ethnic group. At that time, within this autonomous prefecture there were already 5 townshiplevel, 6 district-level and 2 county-level autonomous divisions for the Mongol, Xibe, Hui, Kirgiz and Daur people respectively in areas these minority groups lived in compact communities. The Kazakh took around 40% of the population in the three regions of Ili, Tacheng and Altay, and 85% of the entire Kazakh population throughout China (in 1953). In addition, these three places were geographically adjacent and all were bases for the three-region revolution.

To apply regional ethnic autonomy there would be more conducive to better unity and cooperation among different ethnic groups and the economic and cultural development in the three regions. Therefore, with the official approval from the Central Government, the CPC Central Committee Xinjiang Bureau and the Xinjiang Provincial People's Government set up Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, which ran 24 counties and cities^41. Xinjiang gradually realized subprovincial regional ethnic autonomy from the smaller to bigger divisions, which meant the conditions for establishing the provincial autonomous region were getting increasingly ready.

In the practice of introducing regional ethnic autonomy, the installation of autonomous governments became more and more rational and standardized. In accordance with the Implementing Guidelines of the People's Republic of China for Regional Ethnic Autonomy in 1952, all regional ethnic autonomous divisions were called “autonomous areas” in the beginning stage, but they had six different levels, including the provincial, xingshu, zhuanshu, county, district and township ones. The identical names were prone to generate confusion. In addition, district and county regimes had too few population and too small area to exercise autonomous rights in reality. On July 23, 1954, the CPC Terrakotta krieger 2016 china Central Committee Xinjiang Bureau passed on the Instruction of the CPC Central Committee United Front Department Concerning Suspending the Establishment of and Changing Sub-County-Level Regional Ethnic Autonomous Divisions, which decided that the administrative status of ethnic autonomous organs throughout the country included three levels—autonomous region, prefecture and county, and that no new sub-county level ethnic autonomous areas would be set up and existing ones should be changed to ethnic townships.



In August 1944, rioting against the reactionary rule of Sheng Shicai and the Kuomintang erupted in Gongha County (today's Nilka County) in Ili. On November 7, Yining uprising broke out. Since the top level of the feudal religious forces headed by Elihan Torae seized the leadership of the uprising, a splittist regime, the“East Turkistan Republic” arose amidst the uprising movement in Yining, Northern Xinjiang. This separatist regime not only inherited elements of the 1933 southern splittist regime, the “East Turkistan Islamic Republic” in name, but also chose to found itself on the same day as that of the Southern Xinjiang splittist regime, November 12.

On November 12, 1944, the “Ili Liberation Organization”declared the establishment of the interim government of the “East Turkistan Republic”. The “national flag” was one with yellow star and moon on a green background. Sixteen people, including Elihan Torae took office as members of the “interim government”, where Elihan Torae was “Chairman” of the “government”, a top feudal lord AkimbegHoja the “Vice Chairman”, and a top religious figure and merchant Abdurevov Mehsum “Secretary-General”. Among other members of the “government”, seven were top figures from the feudalist or religious circle, who were Rehmjan Shabil Hajji, Mohmatjan Mehsum, Anival Mushabayev, Abduhail Torae, Buka, Shaljanbaii Babjan and Abdumut Alihailip; two were Soviet nationals living in Xinjiang, Paville Pavlovic Moskaliov and Jani Yalidash; and only a very small proportion was progressive intellectuals headed by Abdukerim Abbasov. From the composition of the “interim government”, we can see that the power was in the hand of top feudalist and religious figures influenced by “Pan-Islamism” and “Pan-Turkism” headed by Elihan Torae, while the military power was controlled by a Soviet military officer, Aleksandrov, who was the commander-in-chief of the guerrilla forces of the “interim government”.

On January 5, 1945, a “government declaration” whose drafting was “aided” by the Soviet consulate was adopted at the fourth meeting of the “committee of the interim Peking Reise 2015 government” of the“East Turkistan Republic”, which contained nine points. The first and second points read as follows:

  1. To uproot China's autocratic rule on the territory of “East Turkistan”.
  2. To build a truly free and independent state on the basis of equality among all ethnic groups in the territory of “East Turkistan


In the political area, the Soviet experts helped the provincial government to formulate and implement the six major policies, that is, “anti-imperialism, pro-Soviet, ethnic equality, honesty, peace and construction”. Economically, they assisted in the formulation and implementation of the “three-year economic plan” and helped the provincial government to provide loans, straighten out the finance, resume land and animal farming activities, and develop manufacturing and processing industries. In terms of the military and security forces, the Soviet experts helped Xinjiang to reorganize troops, set up public security and border affairs agencies, and provide various types of military equipment. The help from the Soviet Union enabled Xinjiang to get over its war wounds quickly, take on a new look politically and achieve rapid social and economic recovery.

The last, but not least, task was to improve politics to cope with the tense relations among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The conflict from 1931 to 1933 was very much attributable to the tension in ethnic relations and intensified ethnic conflicts apart from the political factor. In that context, with the assistance from the Soviet Union, Sheng Shicai set forth an ethnic policy featured by ethnic equality and reconciliation. The provincial government publicized a declaration on April 12, 1934, in which the first point of the Administrative Strategies (that is, the Eight-Point Declaration) was about ensuring ethnic equality. The first people's assembly was convened in Xinjiang immediately after the release of the declaration, and its primary purpose was to ease ethnic relations and carry out the ethnic equality policy. In 1936, Xinjiang provincial government came up with its administration programme, which included six major policies; ethnic equality was one of the six. An approach of reconciliation and placation was adopted towards tribal chiefs as well as renowned and influential figures Viajes en peking, xi'an, vuelo en china from various ethnic groups. For the first time, there were ethnic minority members in the provincial government committee, among whom Hoja Niyaz (ethnically Uygur) was appointed vice chairman of the provincial government. Ethnic minorities also accounted for a considerable proportion in the ting-and xian-level officials. There was also a policy of supporting minority culture and education. The implementation of ethnic equality and reconciliation remarkably changed the

ethnic relations in Xinjiang; as a result, people from different ethnic background lived in growing harmony all over the area.

 



Later, the emperors of the Northern Qi Dynasty were so “fond of Qiuci music”that it was almost “like an addiction” During the Northern Zhou Dynasty, Wudi Emperor, Yuwen Yong, sought for a marriage with the Turki khan family in 568 AD. As part of the dowry, the Turk princess, Ashina brought with her a huge Western Regions musicand-dance troupe composed of 300 people from Qiuci, Sulek, Bukhara and Samarkand, thus introducing the fine art of music and dance of the Western Regions to the Central Plains once again. Many artists brought by the Turki princess later became significant figures in the Chinese music history, of whom the one with the biggest contribution was Sujup, a musical theorist from Qiuci. Sujup taught Han musicians the Qiuci musical theory of “Five Modes and Seven Notes”. The establishment and application of this theory improved the temperament system of the entire Chinese nation as it set up the standards for music and deeply impacted the music in the Sui and Tang Dynastieså¹½.During the Sui and Tang period, every household on the Central Plains “learnt northwestern music” and the court music was also dominated by minority repertoire. Wendi Emperor of Sui defined “seven music categories”,three of which were from the Western

Regions. Yangdi Emperor of Sui expanded the categories to nine, with five from the Western Regions. In the Tang Dynasty, Taizong Emperor defined “ten music categories”,which included music from Qiuci, Sulek^ Bukhara, Samarkand,Korea, Western Liang, Gaochang, banquet music, ancient Chinese music and Indian music. Among the ten categories, Western Regions produced six, or seven, if Western Liang music was also counted, which was a“variation of Qiuci music,,J23. Qiuci music was held in high esteem and called “top of the minority categories” If we take into account other music spreading to the east from the Western Regions, such as that of Yutian, Yanqi, Turks, Yueban, Qirqiz, Maimargh, Kesh and Yizhou, then the music of the Western Regions definitely had an overwhelming dominance.

Another piece worth mentioning in China kultur - Kultur von China Xinjiang music-anddance is the Twelve Muqa'm, a classical work of folk music, dance and poetry that gradually and slowly came into being on the basis of Qiuci, Sulek^ Yutian and other ancient Xinjiang music, with complementary musical instruments and melodies from Islamic countries such as Arabia and Persia. The Twelve Muqam consists of twelve suites, each having three repertoires—Chong Naghma, Dastan and Mashrap, with lyrics made of famous poems, ballads or folk tale verses. In its long history, Muqam underwent two major consolidations.



In 1219 (the 12th year of Jiading reign of Song Dynasty), Chinggis Khan started his west expedition to revenge Khwarozm for killing Mongol envoy. In the fall of that year, the Mongol troops arrived at Otrar at lower Syr River. Divided into several groups, the Mongol troops took all the cities along the Huzhang River and then the capital city of Khwarozm Chinggis Khan and his youngest son Tolui headed the main forces and captured Bukhara and Samarkand. Early in 1221 (the 14th year of Jiading reign of Song Dynasty), they crossed the Amu River and occupied Balkh and Talihan. In the meantime, Chinggis Khan sent troops to pursue the last monarch of Khwarozm Jebe and his troops fought all the way to the west along the Khurasan Road in Central Asia, crossed the Caucasus, defeated Kepqak on the steppe in South Russia, and arrived Bolga near Kasan in today's Russia before setting out for the return journey. The Mongol troops' military operations in Central Asia, Iran, Russia and East Europe were extremely merciless as they leveled cities and killed people wantonly, which led to huge human casualty and colossal property losses on the part of the invaded areas. However, in both the northern and southern pans of the Tianshan Mountains, the Mongol troops were restrained since local chiefs took the initiative to pledge allegiance.

On the eve of the west expedition, Chinggis Khan divided the areas in the Western Regions that had been and would be occupied among his three elder sons, Jochi, Chagatai and Ogedei. Based on History of Conquerors in the World by Jeflhey^, Collection of History by Lashet (pronunciation) and records by Omar (pronunciation), contemporary scholars believe that “roughly speaking, the area west of Shi River in Yer, north of today's Aral Sea and Caspian Sea belonged to Jochi; the former territory of Western Liao, between Uygur and Transoxiana, belonged to Chagatai; and from Yemili to the north, the area of former Nayman tribe that included part of today's Kara-Ertix River and Altay Mountains belonged to Ogedei,,J221. The land division made by Chinggis Khan laid down the groundwork for the regime pattern in the Western Regions during the Mongol period.

After Chinggis Kharis death, Ogedei, Queen Toregene Khatu, Guyuk, Queen Oghul Ghaymish and Mongke took power one after another. During that period, in 1236 (the 3rd year of Duanping reign of Song Dynasty), Ogedei sent his “eldest son for west expedition,Guerreros el recinto de la tumba de terracota,,and perished Kepqak and Bolga, conquered Russia, and swept Eastern European areas such as Poland and Hungary , shaking the Christian world. After succeeding to the Great Khanship, Mongke sent Hulegu onto a “west expedition”,who wiped out the Assasins(the extremist division of Islamic Ismailis advocating assassination) in today's Iran and the Abbasid Empire in West Asia, then marched further to Syria, and finally returned home after being frustrated at Ain Jalut in today's Palestine.

 



Some people think that it is bad to file for bankruptcy. If you are in large financial debts, it is not that easy to wriggle out. Living with debt is itself a harrowing situation – something not suitable for any sane person. Contacting a Hagerstown bankruptcy lawyer can help you to learn more about the situation. The following statistics can help you to understand that filing for bankruptcy is not a bad thing at all. Did you know that in the year 1999, approximately 1.3 million individuals had filed for bankruptcy to distance themselves away from the usual complications of having bad debt?

 

The stigma associated with going bankrupt or filing for bankruptcy simply does not exist anymore. People need to get immediate relief from their debts. And filing for bankruptcy is the best option that is available to them at present.

 

Bankruptcy law is diverse and are also actually quite convoluted. Only those who have many years of experience will be able to guide their clients in a proper way. The guidance offered by them will help the clients to lead a happy and worry free life.

 

Many people, in fact, want to know the minimum time required for the effect of filing for bankruptcy to take place. An automatic effect will come into the scene soon after the filing process. The creditors will not be able to harass you or your family members anymore. The system will also stop all wage garnishments / foreclosures immediately.

 

It can however take some time to get the debts discharged. If you are filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, then it is better to wait a minimum of three to eight months to see the discharge of the debts. Do bear in mind that one will have to meet up with the payment plan requirements to see the actual debt discharge.

 

Filing for bankruptcy might appear like a good thing to do in certain instances. However, it is not the ultimate method that can protect you in an effective manner. The process does come with its own share of shortcoming too. Make it a point your options with a lawyer.



  1. 2.    Better Management of Religious Affairs in Accordance with the Law

Contrary to integration of government and religion, separation of government and religion means that religion shall not interfere in the state's administrative, judicial and educational Endeavour, while the state regards all religions as equals and protects normal religious activities. In the history of Xinjiang, the Islamic faith had close connections with local regime for a long time and was considerably influential in politics, economy, education and other aspects of the community. The democratic reform and religious system reform in 1950s repealed religion's feudalist privileges as well as its oppressive and exploitative system, and achieved separation of government and religion. Religious belief thus became personal matters of citizens, and people began to truly enjoy the right to the freedom of religious belief and the right to receive scientific and cultural knowledge.

Under the principle of separation of government and religion, religion must be divorced from the regime of the state and refrain from getting involved in the political life of the state, and the state manages religious affairs according to law. The major components of that principle are as follows:

  1. The state's policies and laws are formulated and implemented by the administrative and judicial departments of the government, religious organizations or the clergy shall not interfere in that process. The internal affairs of religions are handled by the respective religious organizations in accordance with their own programmes and regulations, and the state will not interfere either.
  2. Religion has no privilege transcending the Constitution and other laws, nor can it interfere in the implementation of state functions in the administrative, judicial and educational fields. Religious matters and activities concerning national or communal interests shall be incorporated into lawful management. Religious organizations undertake obligations prescribed by law.
  3. The state earnestly guarantees the freedom of religious belief, ensures orderly proceeding of various religious activities and protects legitimate interests of religious organizations. For that purpose, the state and Xinjiang autonomous region government have formulated, in accordance with the law, many essential methods and regulations to standardize management over religion. Such methods and regulations include Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Management

of Religious Activities of Aliens within Its Territory, Provisional Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the Management of Religious Sites, Provisional Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the Management of Religious Activities, and Regulations Viajar al tibet of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Management of Religious Affairs.

  1. It is not allowed to resume abolished religious feudalist privileges and religious oppressive and exploitative system, nor is it allowed to use religion to oppose the CPC leadership or socialist system, impair national or communal interests, or harm other citizens' legitimate rights.


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Should You Use a doctors accounting Planner?

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